Working papers

  1. ILO Working paper 84

    Engendering informality statistics: gaps and opportunities

    21 November 2022

    Informality is a dynamic and multidimensional concern that demands gender-sensitive data. In 2018, globally, more than 60% of employment was informal. However, global averages hide that in more countries the share of women in informal employment exceeds that of men. Also, women in the informal economy are often in the most unprotected situations – as domestic workers, home-based workers and contributing family workers – where a lack of visibility can increase their vulnerability.

  2. ILO Working paper 83

    Labour protests during the pandemic : The case of hospital and retail workers in 90 countries

    07 November 2022

    With a novel methodology searching news events from world’s largest news agencies via the online GDELT project, this report documents protest of key workers against their working conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic in 90 countries.

  3. ILO Working paper 82

    Long-term care in the context of population ageing: a rights-based approach to universal coverage

    20 October 2022

    With the acceleration of population ageing, the achieving of healthy ageing is becoming a global imperative and social protection policies and social security systems have an important role to play in this endeavour.

  4. ILO Working paper 81

    Key workers in Malaysia during the pandemic

    17 October 2022

    During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Malaysian government prioritized health and economic stimulus packages for the sectors considered “key” for the economy and gave little recognition to the workers making contributions to the functioning of daily lives.

  5. ILO Working paper 80

    Realizing the opportunities of the platform economy through freedom of association and collective bargaining

    30 September 2022

    This study provides empirical evidence from different regions of the world to identify avenues for platform economy workers to access freedom of association and collective bargaining.

  6. ILO Working paper 79

    COVID-19 Among Migrant Farmworkers in Canada: Employment Strain in a Transnational Context

    20 September 2022

    This study analyzes the conditions that migrant farmworkers in Canada endured prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020-March 2022).

  7. ILO Working paper 78

    Labour market policies for inclusiveness: A literature review with a gap analysis

    07 September 2022

    This paper reviews the role of specific fiscal spending and transfer programmes in shaping labour market dynamics by disentangling different macroeconomic and microeconomic mechanisms.

  8. ILO Working paper 77

    The effects of COVID-19 on businesses: key versus non-key firms

    30 August 2022

    This paper analyzes how a specific differentiation by governments throughout the world – whether a sector was deemed “essential” or “key” – affected firm performance.

  9. ILO Working paper 76

    The role of tripartite social dialogue in facilitating a just transition: Experiences from selected countries

    30 August 2022

    This Working Paper analyses the role of tripartite social dialogue in supporting green workplaces and, more generally, promoting just transitions at enterprise level.

  10. ILO Working paper 75

    Using Online Vacancy and Job Applicants’ Data to Study Skills Dynamics

    18 August 2022

    This paper finds that big data on vacancies and applications to an online job board can be a promising data source for studying skills dynamics, especially in countries where alternative sources are scarce. To show this, we develop a skills taxonomy, assess the characteristics of such online data, and employ natural language processing and machine-learning techniques. The empirical implementation uses data from the Uruguayan job board BuscoJobs, but can be replicated with similar data from other countries.